miércoles, 26 de mayo de 2010

Active-mode PNP transistors in circuits

Active-mode PNP transistors in circuits

Structure and use of PNP transistor.

The diagram opposite is a schematic representation of a PNP transistor connected to two voltage sources. To make the transistor conduct appreciable current (on the order of 1 mA) from E to C, VEB must be above a minimum value sometimes referred to as the cut-in voltage. The cut-in voltage is usually about 600 mV for silicon BJTs at room temperature but can be different depending on the type of transistor and its biasing. This applied voltage causes the upper P-N junction to 'turn-on' allowing a flow of holes from the emitter into the base. In active mode, the electric field existing between the emitter and the collector (caused by VCE) causes the majority of these holes to cross the lower P-N junction into the collector to form the collector current IC. The remainder of the holes recombine with electrons, the majority carriers in the base, making a current through the base connection to form the base current, IB. As shown in the diagram, the emitter current, IE, is the total transistor current, which is the sum of the other terminal currents.

In the diagram, the arrows representing current point in the direction of conventional current – the flow of holes is in the same direction of the arrows because holes carry positive electric charge. In active mode, the ratio of the collector current to the base current is called the DC current gain. This gain is usually 100 or more, but robust circuit designs do not depend on the exact value. The value of this gain for DC signals is referred to as hFE, and the value of this gain for AC signals is referred to as hfe. However, when there is no particular frequency range of interest, the symbol β is used

It should also be noted that the emitter current is related to VEB exponentially. At room temperature, an increase in VEB by approximately 60 mV increases the emitter current by a factor of 10. Because the base current is approximately proportional to the collector and emitter currents, they vary in the same way.
C.I 17557095 

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